Internet – How the Internet works | Ultimate guide | Everything you need
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Manas Sinha
Developer | Designer
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Manas Sinha
Developer | Designer

By Manas | 19 March 2021 | 2 mins read

INTERNET - UNDER THE HOOD

How it all works | DNS | IP | ISP
So you clicked on the link and landed on this page. Ever wondered what happened in between the click and the page loading. The internet works in the shadows and the IT guys are the men in black. Well, men/women/others in whatever they like to wear to be politically correct. Feww…dodged that bullet.
You have an internet connection. But what is “internet connection” anyway? What is mobile data? What is WiFi, LAN and lots of other jargons that you use or just ignore when you see them because you have no idea what it is. So, lets start at the beginning.

0. WHAT IS A WEBSITE​

A website just a piece of code written in a file(s) that a browser can compile i.e HTML. when you search for a website you are requesting for that file. Just like your computer holds a file some other computer may be sitting across the globe has the website source file.

1.IP address

Every device connected to the internet is identified by a series of numbers and characters called IP address.Your computer and mobile phone has one too. The server that has the website also has one. To request the website file from that remote computer we must know its address, but it’s impossible to remember such a nasty series of characters for all the hundreds of websites to surf. Here comes the DNS.

2.DNS

DNS
DNS stands for domain name system. It is a huge digital phone book that converts domain name like thebinaryrealm.com to its IP address form which is then looked up for.
So you typed in the web url and hit enter. What happens? Depending upon the nature of your connection, wireless or wired, you will be connected to the router through WiFi or LAN cable respectively. Most modern routers come with a built in modem, modem is the device that connects you the internet. The signal moves through the medium to the modem through the router and it reaches your internet service provider (ISP) via the telephone lines or optical fibre cable if you are using gigafiber. If you are using mobile data your signal first hits the nearest cell tower and that is carried to the ISP through???? You guessed it, WIRES.

3.ISP

The ISP is the company that actually makes internet available to everyone. The ISP is divided in three tiers.
  • Tier 1
    • They are at the top of the hierarchy.
    • These companies transfer internet traffic from one geo location to another.
    • These ISPs don’t have to pay anyone anything for internet traffic moving through their network. The lower level ISPs pay them to transfer their traffic to places they can’t reach.
    • They are big companies like AT&T who build infrastructure to make internet avaliable globally.
  • Tier 2
    • These ISPs are responsible to provide internet within a country or region.
    • They connect Tier 1 and Tier 2.
    • Example Vodafone
  • Tier 3
    • Closest to the user, they are responsible to make internet available in a smaller area.
    • They charge the end user some money that is your internet pack or whatever.
    • Example Reliance jio
The entire world is connected through miles and miles long connection of optical fibre cables running underwater. Your request is forwarded to the desired location (using the IP address) by the ISP through these giant net of cables and the same processes are used to send back the website files once the server gets your request and responds.
Of course its not all ! There are lots of networking stuffs that goes on but thats for a diffrent blog.

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